RUSENGAppendices and additions.  

The present section is added under numerous requests of visitors of a site. It will be informed in it, what new information is on a site and where it is. Here in this section various appendices and documents on which there are references in the basic sections of a site will be inserted. In advance we apologize, if copies of documents not always are high quality.

Last additions and changes:

Safety of the reactor RBMK-1000 (A.N.Rumyantsev's memories).....26.03.2011
Physical nature of explosion (question of ¹7)..................................21.07.2011
Chief designer’s letter about “tip-effect”.........................................07.08.2011

These are the Nuclear Safety Regulations that was valid at designing and operating of reactor RBMK-1000 for fourth unit of ChNPP. They were obligatory for observance, irrespective of a departmental belonging, by all enterprises, institutions and the organizations at designing, building and operating of nuclear power plants.
Operation procedures.
It is technical regulations for operation of RBMK-1000 power units which were valid for 3rd and 4th units of ChNPP up to accident 26.04.1986. It is produced on the basis of model regulations of operation procedures for RBMK-1000. Right after accident changes to it have been made, and then in process of applying of measures for increase of RBMK safety, the regulations have been essentially re-casted.
The program of slow-down test.
It is the working program of tests of a turbine generator in a slow-down mode carried out during a stop of the reactor of ChNPP 4th power unit for PPM on April, 25th – 26th, 1986. Accident has occurred during performance of this work. The program is copied from A.S.Djatlov's book "Chernobyl. How it was" Moscow, 2003.
Computer simulation of the accident.
It is article in periodic "Atomic energy", vol. 71, part 4, October 1991 ã. In article computer simulating of an initial stage of the Chernobyl accident, accomplished in 1989 – 1990 by three organizations (VNIIAES, IAE, I.V.Kurchatov IAE and IJaI of Ukrainian AS), is produced.
R.I.Davletbaev's memoirs.
R.I.Davletbaev the deputy chief of turbine shop of ChNPP, was present on the unit at the moment of accident and is its eyewitness. His memoirs «The last shift» were published repeatedly in the network. Here they are taken from the publication in the collection «Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or fortuity?», M: Energoatomizdat, 1995). -ISBN 5-283-03618-9
Accounts of eyewitnesses and evidences of witnesses.
Here the attestations of eyewitnesses are presented, who were at the moment of accident at CRU, the centralized control of the reactor and the power unit whence is fulfilled, and also on other workplaces in immediate closeness from occurring events. These evidences have been directly received by writer J.N.Scherbak at once without delay and are given here according to his book: [Jury Scherbak "Chernobyl", Moscow, issued by «The Soviet writer», 1991] Evidences of witnesses in trial on Chernobyl accident are inaccessible to us, as they remained in the closed materials of court. But there are the records made by employees of NPP present at trial sessions: by N.Karpan (the deputy chief engineer of ChNPP) and by A.Koljadin (chief of TAI shop). These records are published, and they are given here according to the book: [Karpan N.V. "Chernobyl. Revenge of peace atom" Dnepropetrovsk, 2006]

Chief designer of RBMK about Chernobyl accident.
Here chapter 13 from the book of the Main designer of reactor RBMK Channel nuclear power reactor ÐÁÌÊ is given (General edition edited by J.M.Cherkashev, Moscow, State Unitary Enterprise NIKIET, 2006). The chapter is reproduced completely except for the description of a picture of destructions. That description tells nothing about causes of accident to which the site is strictly devoted, and besides similar descriptions are available on the Internet.
The letter of Chief Designer about tip-effect.
There is the letter, which was written according to the results of the physical set in operation of reactor RBMK-1500 on Ignalina NPP. The letter informs about run-out of positive reactivity discovered in this starting process. The letter is sent to all NPPs equipped by the RBMK reactors.
From minutes of sessions of the Politbyuro TsK KPSS.
At session of the Politburo from July, 3rd, 1986 results of work of the governmental commission on the causes of Chernobyl accident have been considered. Minutes of this session are "strictly confidential" and to the publication were not assumed. Nevertheless they are published in the book "Jaroshinsky A.A., Philosophy of nuclear safety", M, 1996. In her other book "Chernobyl 20 years later", Ì, 2006 Alla Jaroshinskaja tells almost a detective story about how, being the deputy of the Supreme body of the USSR a member of the deputy commission, she at disorder of the USSR has managed to remove copies from these documents and by that has kept them for history.
View on Chernobyl accident by eyes of investigators of Office of Public Prosecutor.
Many visitors of the Internet, the interested Chernobyl accident, perceive quite seriously statements of the former investigator of Kiev regional Office of Public Prosecutor S.I. Yankovsky. That has made us to lay out here in a context of the present site of its interview to an electronic weekly journal "Mirror of week" on the occasion of the accident 10 anniversary. The text is given without comments. One thing it is possible to tell firmly, the journalist interviewing, could not invent it, that is, such is vision of the investigator who has spent criminal investigation of Chernobyl accident. Is much more realistic, but not quite according to the facts also the head of an investigatory brigade of the State Office of Public Prosecutor Ju.A.Potemkin expounds the same events. However, there is not stopping Yankovsky, and by 17th anniversary, as well as earlier he so same irresponsible, and much more aggressively again acts.
Documents on safety of RBMK-1000 before the Chernobyl accident.
Problems of safety of reactors RBMK used attention of course before Chernobyl accident also. The documents presented here indicates of how the views and approaches of safe RBMK operating cardinally differed before and after accident. They also show, how it is difficult to believe now that anybody from engaged then operation of the NPP with RBMK, did not know about dangerous features and operating modes of the reactor the facts that each student knows today.
Information of accident on the Chernobyl NPP prepared for IAEA.
It is the report of the Soviet delegation at meeting of IAEA experts, delivered by V.A.Legasov on August, 26th, 1986. In it the official point of view of the USSR, which has laid down in a basis of the international document on the Chernobyl accident INSAG-1, published by IAEA, is stated. The report contained not correct and false statements and created wrong notion about causes of accident. Later this point of view has been partially reconsidered that has found reflection in INSAG-7 (addition to INSAG-1) [M2].
The plan of realisation of actions «on increase of safety of the NPP with RBMK reactors».
True causes of accident were clear to the Soviet experts already in the beginning of May, 1986. Operative directions to introduce on operating units certain actions in addition to regulations and maintenance instructions have been given out at once on all the NPP with RBMK. And in June, 1986 the plan of urgent realisation of these and other measures for reconstruction ÐÁÌÊ has been confirmed.
INSAG-7 (I.4.7. About actions of the NPP personnel).
Right after accident and up to 1991, action of the operational personnel were qualified, as one continuous chain of infringements without some detailed analysis. And only in 1991 ã such analysis has been made by commission of SCSSINP (Gospromatomnadzor). The commission report is included in structure INSAG-7 (the appendix I).
The analysis of accident on the Chernobyl NPP. WNIIAES report, 1986.
In the report results of calculations of physical processes of an initial phase of Chernobyl accident on mathematical model of the power unit with RBMK-1000 are presented. These calculations basically have been executed in May-June, 1986, and have allowed them to draw certain conclusions concerning causes of accident.
The analisis of efficiency of CPS of reactor RBMK -1000. Report of KIJaI, 1986.
Results of computational researches on change of reactivity of reactor RBMK-1000 at immersing of CPS rods in the reactor, when there is a condition with a small reactivity margin, are presented in this report. Calculations for comparison are executed under two different programs of 3-dimensional neutron-physics calculations – DST-3 and TREP.
Joint report of WNIIAES, KIJaI and IAE of I.V.Kurchatov, 1989.
The report on research work of three organisations is delivered: WNIIAES, IJaI (of Ukrainian Academy of Science) and IAE of I.V.Kurchatov. The report concerns workings out of full-scale mathematical models of dynamics of the NPP with ÐÁÌÊ-1000 and the analysis on their basis of an initial stage of accident on the Chernobyl NPP. The initial condition of the reactor and spatial distribution of parameters in transient is in detail considered.

to main page